Understanding how CRE/FM issues specific to a particular industry or working environment affect performance places P&A in a strong position when it comes to providing support and advice to our customers. The following are environments where P&A has worked demonstrating the breadth of our experience and while each has their own unique problems based on size and business requirements it’s often surprising how similar the solutions are.

Corporate Offices facilities management Fixed Electrical Testing cmms software

From prestigious company headquarter buildings which make a statement to more humble utilitarian office space, corporate offices are one of the biggest users of facility services. Balance between asset maintenance and soft services often depends on the complexity of the mechanical and electrical systems

Typical Service Scope
  • Health & Safety
  • Fire Safety
  • Security
  • M&E Maintenance
  • Building Fabric Maintenance
  • Grounds Maintenance
  • Car Parking
  • Periodic Statutory Testing & Inspections
  • Cleaning
  • Helpdesk
  • Waste Management
  • Reception
  • Meeting Room Management
  • Mail Room
  • Reprographics
  • Catering and Vending
  • Office Space Planning
  • Pest Control
FM Focus/Customer Value Proposition

Whether wholly run in-house, wholly outsourced or a mix of the two, FM focus should be on supporting business operation and delivering the correct Customer Value Proposition (CVP). FM Services should dovetail seamlessly and only be visible where visibility is desired. CVPs need to be established for staff as well as each of the various categories of visitors expected at the offices. For example, staff prefer a building that is well maintained with supporting services that work efficiently when needed. Sales prospects need to be impressed by a company’s understanding of their needs and the quality of goods and/or services on offer. Other visitors seek efficient processing at reception with well signed visitor parking and minimal delays during security checks.

General Issues

Some of the greatest issues surrounding facilities management in corporate offices are generated by a lack of clarity in responsibility boundaries. Examples include:

  • IT and Electrical Cabling
  • Security and Reception
  • Maintenance of Specialist Equipment
  • Capital vs Minor Projects
  • Catering, Vending & Water Dispensers
Mission Critical facilities management Fixed Electrical Testing cmms software

Generally, a ‘Mission Critical’ facility is one where the loss or interruption to its expected operation can have a major effect on the businesses that rely on it.

Mission Crtical difficulties can include significant:
  • disruption to normal business operation
  • revenue loss
  • regulatory non-compliance
  • loss of customer confidence
  • damage to reputation
FM Focus/Customer Value Proposition:

In an environment where downtime of critical assets or facilities can cost millions of dollars per hour, success is measured through availability. Availability measures the percentage of time that an asset or service provides reliable performance and is reliant on optimized design to ensure capacity and redundancy is appropriate. Equally as important is adopting a reliability centred maintenance (RCM) approach to development of the most suitable maintenance framework.


It is also important to understand the importance of softer issues such as the pressures staff experience working in mission critical environments. Staff retention can be significantly improved by providing a facility which recognizes the benefits of keeping staff fit and relieving stress.

General Issues

There are a number of important issues to keep in mind when working in Mission Critical environments. These include:

  • Identifying critical equipment, its capability, and how it is operated and maintained
  • Identifying Single Points of Failure (SPOF) and expected availability
  • Benchmarking maintenance and operational practices to find what works and replicate
  • Selecting and training technicians to meet availability goals and objectives
  • Employing a strong vendor management program to ensure high quality services are delivered
  • Applying change control principles and practices to all work to manage risk
  • Developing appropriate contingency plans
Manufacturing facilities management Fixed Electrical Testing cmms software

Manufacturing refers to the transformation of raw materials into finished products on a large scale using labor and tools, machines, chemical, or biological processing. Therefore, manufacturing facilities are typically large in size or are composed of many buildings on a single campus. Since manufacturing activities can be loud, hazardous, and even result in emissions, facilities are frequently built in remote locations with good access to highway and rail transportation.


Given the amount of resources required to operate a manufacturing facility, they are usually supported by industrial-sized central utility systems such as on-site power generation, high-amperage power distribution, high pressure steam systems, compressed air, and chilled water for process cooling /HVAC applications. An appropriately sized, highly trained team is required to operate and maintain these manufacturing facilities which can operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week depending on production schedules.

FM Focus/Customer Value Proposition:

The focus of Facilities Management in the manufacturing environment is on safe and reliable facilities and services that enable the entity to focus on its core production business. Key elements of the value proposition include:

  • Safety – Creating a work culture that put safety first with robust Control of Work (CoW) and Management of Change processes (MoC)
  • Security – Given the hazardous nature of many industrial facilities they can be a prime target for terrorism
  • Regulatory Compliance – Compliance with all federal, state, and local regulatory requirements as well as Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)
  • Asset Management – Optimize equipment performance over time with the proper maintenance approach and activities
  • Energy Management – Given the majority of FM operating cost in a manufacturing environment is energy a focus on energy management is essential for being competitive
FM Considerations:

Other important considerations for FM operations within a manufacturing environment include:

  • Determining the scope of FM versus process trades – where to draw the line
  • Determining which FM services to maintain in-house or which to outsource
  • Working in a union environment
  • Industrial services such as on-site fluid management
  • On-site storerooms and spare part management
  • Compliance with site Management Systems (Quality / Environmental / Safety)
Retail facilities management Fixed Electrical Testing cmms software

The retail landscape is changing at an unprecedented rate. Online shopping is growing at more than 15% per annum and we are regularly seeing established high street chains struggling to survive.


Traditional shops have to maintain downward pressure on costs and yet invest in enhancing the “shopping experience” in order to maintain margins while shopping centers have to be more creative in attracting footfall to maintain returns from unit rental income.

Cash flows are tight and traditional retailers are seeking every opportunity to improve these by spreading costs of rent and facilities management services. In an industry where success is heavily linked to consumer confidence, minor advantages in cost certainty and minimization can make the difference that leads to profitable survival.

FM Focus/Customer Value Proposition:

In retailing there are two fundamental value propositions. One provides low price and efficient processing while the other focuses on high value and shopping excitement.

FM Focus for low price with efficient processing needs to concentrate on:
  • Cost minimization
  • Minimum service levels consistent with business efficiency
  • Clear signage
For high value and shopping excitement, FM Focus should include:
  • Cost optimization
  • Well maintained HVAC, Electrical, Lighting & Audio Systems
  • Regular cleaning schedule concentrating on floors and windows
FM Considerations:

The main FM challenge in retail is determining the most appropriate, efficient and effective resource provision and scheduling. Making special arrangements to attend high street shops to maintain equipment and systems can be inefficient but undertaking maintenance and cleaning amongst shoppers can damage business and potentially cause safety problems. Perversely, this can be even more of a problem for stores with 24-hour opening. With larger stores it can be cost-effective to maintain full-time cleaning staff to handle ad-hoc tasks in among their regular duties.


In addition, the significant number of portable electrical appliances requires processes and procedures to track their whereabouts (together with any additions or disposals), ensure they are safe to use and that they comply with local legislation.

General Issues

Security is a significant FM element for shopping centres and major department stores. Both during shopping periods and out of hours, security of premises and stock requires constant monitoring. For out of town shopping, parking management becomes a duty of the centre operator as opposed to the local authority in the high street.


Shopping centres and major department stores rely heavily on providing customers with easy access between floors using a combination of elevators and escalators. Having provided these it is essential that they are operational at all times as failures can swiftly damage the customer’s shopping experience.

Residential facilities management Fixed Electrical Testing cmms software

As with other facility types residential facilities bring their own particular challenges and demands. With multi-unit residential facilities (the most common facility type managed by most FM service providers) the dynamics associated with large numbers of people living in close proximity to one another dramatically increases the emphasis required on effective communication and customer relationship management.

The challenges with safely and reliably operating and maintaining multi-tenant high-rise residential facilities seven days a week and accommodating a diverse range of occupants and their associated personal, preferences, needs, and requirements presents significant challenges for any facility manager. Additional complexity associated with managing multi-tenant residential facilities is linked to the number of key stakeholders associated with the facility including:

  • Property Developers
  • Owners Corporation / Body Corporate
  • Managing Committee / Council
  • Body Corporate’s Managing Agent
  • Facility Manager
  • Residents
  • Service Providers
Typical Service Scope
  • Safety
  • Security
  • MEP Maintenance
  • Elevators
  • HVAC
  • Backup Power Generation
  • Energy Management
  • Utility Management
  • Waste Management
  • Data Networking & Telecoms
  • Parking
  • Cleaning
  • Landscaping & Grounds Maintenance
  • Swimming Pool Maintenance
  • Reception & Mail Services
  • Health & Fitness
FM Focus/Customer Value Proposition:

It is essential that the value proposition associated with providing FM services in a residential market is aligned with the various key stakeholders needs, requirements, and objectives. The value proposition to building owners and developers is directly linked to the following key performance areas:

  • Meeting all Health, Safety, Security & Environmental objectives & requirements
  • Exceeding service expectations (of residents)
  • Delivering best-in-class Facility Services in a cost effective and integrated manner
  • Preventing functional failures of any fire, safety or business critical systems
  • Maintaining the long-term integrity and condition of buildings, plant and equipment over time
  • Optimizing the life-cycle costs of owning and operating building plant And equipment
Clean Manufacturing facilities management Fixed Electrical Testing cmms software

Any manufacturing process that demands ultra-low levels of environmental pollutants such as dust, airborne microbes, aerosol particles and chemical vapor can be classified as ‘Clean Manufacturing’

Contamination levels are controlled to standards, the main classifications being:
  • US FED STD 209E Clean Room Standards
  • ISO 14644-1 Clean Room Standards
  • BS 5295 Clean Room Standards
  • GMP EU Classification

These standards specify the maximum number of particles of a range of sizes permitted in a given volume of air. These standards are generally found in semiconductor manufacturing, biotechnology and the life sciences.


High-efficiency particulate air, (HEPA), and ultra-low penetration air, (ULPA), filters are used to remove contaminants generated from within the facility – air from outside is equally well filtered to remove dust particles. There is generally a high degree of automation involved to keep human involvement to a minimum. All equipment within a clean room is designed with minimal contribution to air contamination in mind and where staff have to enter and leave the facility it is through an air lock and possibly one with an air shower stage. Air pressures are maintained at either a positive or negative state depending on concerns over cross-contamination and air flows, (laminar and/or turbulent), are designed to be specific to the needs of the protected process.


Adhesive mats are often employed to collect dust particles from shoe soles and cart wheels.


Materials used within a clean room environment are selected for their non-shed properties.

FM Focus/Customer Value Proposition

In a Clean Manufacturing environment, FM focus and CVP concentrate on maintaining the contamination levels within required standards. Key activities include:

  • Monitoring & Recording Positive/Negative Air Pressure
  • Monitoring & Recording Airborne Particulates
  • Cleaning
  • Maintenance Of Air Filtration Systems
  • Air Lock And Air Shower Maintenance
  • Adhesive Mat Replacement
FM Considerations:

Staff training is essential as recommissioning cleanrooms is a costly and time-consuming process. Also, filter changes often need to be scheduled to coincide with production breaks.

General Issues:

Production equipment in clean manufacturing environments is designed to contribute as little particulate material as possible to a cleanroom. Major maintenance and recommissioning of such equipment therefore needs to be undertaken in controlled conditions.

Research and Development facilities management Fixed Electrical Testing cmms software

Research and development (R&D) activities comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to create new and improved products, processes, and services that fill market needs. Therefore, R&D facilities can range widely in their size and contents depending on the type of the R&D.

Examples of typical R&D facilities include laboratories, clean rooms, test cells, wind tunnels, and pilot plants. Given the technical nature of these facilities a highly skilled workforce is required to operate and maintain the unique equipment contained within these facilities.

FM Focus/Customer Value Proposition

The focus of Facilities Management in the Research and Design environment is on technical services and facilities that create controlled conditions to support innovation within the business. Key elements of the value proposition include:

  • Advanced Technology – Innovation Typically Requires Advanced Technologies
  • Secrecy And Security – Companies Heavily Invest In R&D Activities In Effort To Gain A Competitive Advantage.
  • Regulatory Compliance – Typically Many Regulatory Requirements That Must Be Complied With From Maintenance Records To Air Emissions.
FM Considerations:

Other important considerations for FM operations within the R&D environment include:

  • Specialized Laboratory Services Including Equipment Calibritions And Industrial Gases
  • Secure Collaboration Spaces With Conferencing Technology For Global R&D Teams
  • Maintainability Of Custom Equipment And Facilities
Hospitals facilities management Fixed Electrical Testing cmms software

Hospitals comprise facilities which concentrate on delivery of patient treatment by dedicated staff using specialized equipment and can include a variety of specialist clinics and surgeries.

Modern hospitals tend to be larger establishments providing a wide range of specialist patient care. Many include emergency departments to treat patients suffering with immediate and urgent threats to health and outpatient departments to provide access to specialist medical staff not normally available in general practice.

Specialist departments can include: Cardiology, Intensive Care, Paediatrics, Neurology, Oncology, Maternity, Orthopaedics and Geriatrics. Common support departments include: Pharmacy, Anaesthetics, Radiology and Pathology.

FM Focus/Customer Value Proposition

Patient care is the primary objective of all hospitals so FM focus and CVP should always align to this ensuring reliable functioning of all care delivery and support departments.


However, hospitals also have to provide for the non-care needs of patients, visitors and staff which generally increases the need for and complexity of support functions such as parking, catering and retail facilities.

FM Focus and CVP include:
  • Fully Integrated Service Provision
  • Hard FM With Emphasis On Heating, Lighting And Power Reliability & Hygiene In Clinical Areas
  • Safety
  • Security
FM Considerations:

Whether wholly run in-house, wholly outsourced or a mix of the two, FM focus should be on supporting business operation and delivering the correct CVP. FM Services should dovetail seamlessly and only be visible where visibility is desired. CVPs need to be established for staff as well as each of the various categories of visitors expected at the offices. For example, staff prefer a building that is well maintained with supporting services that work efficiently when needed. Sales prospects need to be impressed by a company’s understanding of their needs and the quality of goods and/or services on offer. Other visitors seek efficient processing at reception with well signed visitor parking and minimal delays during security checks.

General Issues

FM in hospitals can often include services not found elsewhere such as patient transport and clinical/medical electronic equipment management. Catering also provides additional challenges with an important aspect being timely distribution, over significant distances, of large numbers of hot meals to patients. Hard FM, in addition to general heating, lighting and power, often includes maintenance of specialist items such as complex patient beds and bed pan disposal machines. Work on medical gases is generally handled under strict permit-to-work processes to minimize risk of cross-contamination. Grounds maintenance is often included as an FM requirement.

General Issues

Hospitals have traditionally concentrated efforts on the clinical needs of patients. In recent years however, pressures on clinical budgets have driven hospitals to recognize that by paying attention to the non-clinical needs of patients, visitors and staff there are considerable revenue streams to be developed.


Parking, catering and retail all serve a twin purpose of optimizing income and providing local services. Hairdressing salons now vie with coffee shops to enhance the quality of the hospital experience for patients and visitors alike.

It has also been recognized that hospital design can do a lot to reduce the stress levels experienced by patients on arrival. Reception areas are becoming more like those found in hotels or corporate offices than the drab waiting rooms they used to be. Quality of patient care in a modern hospital is as much to do with considering patient needs in a holistic sense as focussing on clinical requirements. Provision of information and efficient processing to reduce waiting times are all considered important elements to improve the patient experience.



Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Site Map © Pigott & Associates, LLC